Update options in the treatment of coccydina(tail bone pain): article review

Muthanna Medical Journal
Volume 8, Issue 1,  2021 Page 1-9

Ali Taha Hassan Al-Azzawi 1

* Correspondence author: ali.taha06@mu.edu.iq
1Department of surgery, College of Medicine, Al-Muthanna University
Received February 12, 2021; revised April 11, 2021; accepted April 21, 2021; published April 30, 2021


This literature review is intended to provide oversight on the anatomy, incidence, etiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of coccydynia. Relevant articles were retrieved with PubMed using keywords such as “coccydynia”, “coccyx”, “coccyx pain”, and “coccygectomy. Literature accumulated for this study was accumulated from PubMed using sourcombined to form this study. Images were also added from three separate sources to aid in the understanding of the coccyx and coccydynia. Focal points of this study included the anatomy of the coccyx, etiology and presentation of coccydynia, how to properly diagnose coccydynia, and possible treatments for the variety of etioloces. The coccyx morphology is defined using different methods by different authors as presented in this study. There is no conclusive quantitative data on the incidence of coccydynia; however, there are important factors that lead to increased risk of coccydynia such as obesity, age, and female gender. Injury to the coccyx or coccygeal joints with surrounding tissue inflammation and contraction of the muscles attached to the coccyx causes coccydynia. Diagnosis is made predominantly in clinical examinations with static standard radiographs, CT, and routine blood tests. Treatment options include conservative care, physical therapy, intrarectal massage and manipulation, sacrococcygeal injections (including ganglion impar block), and coccygectomy. Many cases are resolved with conservative treatments, despite the wide array of etiologies for the diagnosis. In more extreme cases, physician intervention requires a multidisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment is used as a last resort.

Keywords: Coccydynia, Coccyx, Coccyx pain, Coccygectomy