Bacterial Coinfection in individual with COVID-19

Muthanna Medical Journal
Volume 9, Issue 1,  2022 Page 57-67

Haifaa B Najee ¹, Shaimaa MS Zainulabdeen 

Correspondence author:
¹ Department of Microbiology, Al Muthanna Medical College, Al Muthanna University.
Received 22 April 2022, Accepted 13 June 2022, Available online 30 June 2022.
Copyright © 2022 HN . This is article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The novel coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has traumatized the whole world with the ongoing devastating pandemic. A plethora of microbial domains including viruses (other than SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, archaea and fungi have evolved together, and interact in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. However, the involvement of other microbial co-pathogens and underlying molecular mechanisms leading to extortionate ailment in critically ill COVID-19 patients has yet not been extensively reviewed. Although, the incidence of co-infections could be up to 94.2% in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, the fate of co-infections among SARS-CoV-2 infected hosts often depends on the balance between the host’s protective immunity and immunopathology. Predominantly identified co-pathogens of SARS-CoV-2 are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Legionella pneumophila . The cross-talk between co-pathogens (especially lung microbiomes), SARS-CoV-2 and host is an important factor that ultimately increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, Bacterial Coinfection