Immunological profile of diabetic foot ulcers: Update review

Muthanna Medical Journal

Volume 10, Issue 1,  2023 Page 99-104

Marwa Mohammed Ali Jassim¹, Lana Nazar Abdul-Razzaq², Murtada H. Hussein³

Correspondence author:
¹ College of Dentistry, Al-Muthanna University, Al-Muthanna, Iraq.
² Ministry of Education, Educational Rusafa Directorate, Baghdad, Iraq.
³ College of Science, Thi-Qar University, Thi-Qar, Iraq.
Received 21 January 2023; revised 27 February 2023; accepted 20 April 2023, available online 29 May 2023.
Copyright © 2023 Murtada H. Hussein, et al. This is article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited


The most frequent consequence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic foot ulcers frequently do not heal and necessitate lower limb amputation. According to estimates, DFU accounts for 50% to 70% of all lower limb amputations, and 50% of patients with DFU have peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is occasionally brought on by atherosclerosis. Deformity of foot, peripheral artery disease (PAD), loss protective sensation (LOPS), and a history of foot ulcers. Global prevalence for DFUs varies by region. One of the frequent complications of diabetes in poor nations, such as Iraq, is diabetic foot; approximately two-thirds of the patients with diabetes have Diabetic Foot disorder (DFD) in Iraq and this health issue had significant negative social and economic effects. The Saudi Arabia and Bahrain have the highest prevalence rates of DFU; the reported yearly incidence of diabetic foot ulcers ranges from "2.1% to 7.4%". There are three types of diabetic foot ulcers: neuropathic, neuroischemic, and ischemic. An infected DFU often contains three to five different types of bacteria, including gram-positive aerobes, such as "Staphylococcus sp.", gram-positive anaerobes, gram negative aerobes, gram negative anaerobes, and fungi (Candida spp.). Numerous studies have demonstrated that effective management of DFU can significantly decrease, postpone, or even completely avoid consequences like infection, gangrene, amputation, and death.

Keywords: DFU, DFD, DM, Aerobic bacteria, Anaerobic bacteria